CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Germany

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[조사보고서 개요]

CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Germany

Summary

GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its new report, “CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Germany”. The report is an essential source of information and analysis regarding the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Germany. It identifies key trends in the healthcare market and provides insights into the demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape, and the healthcare infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides valuable insights into the trends and segmentation of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets. The report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, secondary research, and in-house analysis by GlobalData’s team of industry experts.

In 2012, Germany’s population was approximately 82 million. Its pharmaceutical market was valued at $51.5 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach approximately $65.6 billion by 2020, increasing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 3.3%. The medical device market was worth approximately $22.1 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach approximately $32.6 billion by 2020, growing at a projected CAGR of 5%.

Scope

The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Germany, and includes –
- An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, comprising market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers
- Profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the pharmaceutical market, namely Pfizer, Abbott, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Novartis, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK); and medical device market, namely Siemens Healthcare, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Abbott, B. Braun Melsungen and Medtronic.
- An insightful review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, including details of the healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies, and approval processes for new drugs
- Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, including economic indicators, demographics, and the country’s healthcare infrastructure and expenditure
- An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the healthcare market

Reasons to buy

This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to –
- Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving the German healthcare market
- Drive revenues by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to impact the German healthcare market in the future
- Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of various competitors
- Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnership
- Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in the German healthcare market

[조사보고서 목차]

1 Table of Contents
1 Table of Contents 6
1.1 List of Tables 10
1.2 List of Figures 14
2 Introduction 18
2.1 Report Guidance 18
3 Overview of the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets 19
3.1 Pharmaceutical Market 19
3.1.1 Pharmaceutical Imports and Exports 22
3.2 Supply Channels 24
3.2.1 Wholesalers 24
3.2.2 Pharmacies 24
3.2.3 Internet Pharmacies 24
3.2.4 Hospital Pharmacies 25
3.2.5 Wholesale and Pharmacy Mark-ups 25
3.3 Market Segments 29
3.3.1 Generics 29
3.3.2 Biologics/Biosimilars 31
3.3.3 Over-the-Counter Drugs 34
3.4 Major Disease Areas 36
3.4.1 Circulatory System Disorders 38
3.4.2 Digestive System 39
3.4.3 Mental and Behavioral Disorders 39
3.4.4 Musculoskeletal System and Connective System 40
3.4.5 Neoplasm 41
3.4.6 Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic Disorder 41
3.4.7 Respiratory System 42
3.5 Major Players 43
3.6 Medical Device Market 110
3.6.1 Market Overview 110
3.6.2 Overview of the Top Five Segments 113
3.6.3 Diagnostic Market 126
3.6.4 Major Players 128
3.6.5 Market Drivers and Barriers 161
4 Market Access 166
4.1 Reimbursement and Payers Landscape 166
4.1.1 Overview of the Healthcare System 166
4.1.2 Reimbursement Process 167
4.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers 172
4.1.4 Patient Share in Healthcare Spending 175
4.1.5 Prescription Drug Price Trend 178
4.1.6 Pricing Policies 180
4.2 Regulatory Landscape 184
4.2.1 Overview of Regulatory Agencies 184
4.2.2 New Drug Approval Process 184
4.2.3 Generic Drug Approval Process 186
4.2.4 New Medical Device Approval Process 196
4.2.5 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Manufacturing 202
4.2.6 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 203
4.2.7 Intellectual Property Rights 204
4.2.8 Clinical Trial Regulations 206
4.2.9 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations 209
4.2.10 Pharmacy Regulations 210
4.2.11 Labelling and Packaging Regulations 211
5 Country Analysis 213
5.1 Political Environment 213
5.1.1 Political Structure 213
5.1.2 Analysis of Current Political Environment 215
5.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives 216
5.2 Economic Landscape 219
5.3 Economic Indicators 223
5.3.1 Gross Domestic Product 223
5.3.2 Gross National Income 228
5.3.3 Inflation 229
5.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate 232
5.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment 233
5.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves 235
5.3.7 Trade Balance 236
5.3.8 Government Structural Balance 238
5.3.9 Government Net Debt 239
5.3.10 Major Industries 241
5.4 Demography 243
5.4.1 Population 243
5.4.2 Education and Literacy 259
5.4.3 Employment 263
5.4.4 Disease Burden 264
5.5 Healthcare Infrastructure 268
5.5.1 Healthcare Facilities 268
5.5.2 Healthcare Parameters 272
5.5.3 Healthcare Personnel 276
5.5.4 Environmental Health 282
5.6 Healthcare Expenditure 286
5.6.1 Overview 286
5.6.2 Major Components of Healthcare Spending 288
5.6.3 Shares of Public and Private Sector in Healthcare 290
5.6.4 Spending in Pharmaceutical R&D 291
5.7 Trade Associations 292
5.7.1 The Association of Research-based Pharmaceutical Companies 292
5.7.2 The Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacture 293
5.7.3 The Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry 293
5.8 Trade Fairs 294
6 Opportunities and Challenges 295
6.1 Opportunities 295
6.2 Challenges 296
7 Appendix 299
7.1 Abbreviations 299
7.2 Bibliography 306
7.3 Methodology 320
7.3.1 Coverage 320
7.3.2 Secondary Research 321
7.3.3 Forecasting 321
7.3.4 Expert Panel Validation 322
7.4 Disclaimer 322

1.1 List of Tables
Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 20
Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), Forecast, 2013–2020 21
Table 3: Pharmaceutical Import, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 22
Table 4: Pharmaceutical Export, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 23
Table 5: Wholesale Mark-up for Prescription Drugs, Germany, 2010 26
Table 6: Wholesale Mark-up for Reimbursable OTC Drugs, Germany, 2010 26
Table 7: Pharmacy Mark-up for Reimbursable OTC Drugs, Germany, 2010 27
Table 8: SHI Expenditure for Pharmaceutical Products , Germany, Share (%), 2011 28
Table 9: Generic Pharmaceutical Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 30
Table 10: Drugs Going Off-patent, Global, 2013–2014 31
Table 11: Biological Drugs in Pipeline, Germany, 2008–2011 32
Table 12: Approved Biological Products, Therapeutic Indication, Germany, 2010 33
Table 13: Biological Products in Clinical Phase III, Germany, 2011 33
Table 14: Over-the-Counter Drugs Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 35
Table 15: Major Segments, OTC Pharmaceutical, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2011 35
Table 16: Major Disease Area, Germany, Total Cost of Illness ($bn), 2008 37
Table 17: Major Disease Area, Germany, Cost of Illness ($bn), Sales from Retailers and Other Providers of Medical Goods, 2008 37
Table 18: Top Five Best-selling Products, Pfizer, Global, Revenue ($m), 2012 44
Table 19: Late-stage Pipeline, Pfizer, 2013 45
Table 20: Major Products, GlaxoSmithKline, Global, Revenue ($m), 2012 56
Table 21: GlaxoSmithKline, Late-stage Pipeline, 2013 56
Table 22: Major Products, Sanofi, Global, Revenue ($m), 2012 66
Table 23: Late-stage Pipeline, Sanofi, 2013 67
Table 24: Boehringer Ingelheim, Product Portfolio, 2012 74
Table 25: Major Products, Abbott, Global, Revenue ($m), 2011 84
Table 26: Late-stage Pipeline, AbbVie*, 2013 85
Table 27: Major Products, Roche, Global, Revenue ($m), 2012 92
Table 28: Late-stage Pipeline, Roche, 2013 93
Table 29: Major Products, Novartis, Global, Revenue ($m), 2011 100
Table 30: Planned Filings, Novartis, 2012 to ≥ 2016 100
Table 31: Medical Device Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 111
Table 32: Medical Device Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), Forecast, 2013–2020 112
Table 33: Major Medical Device Segments, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2012 113
Table 34: Cardiovascular Devices Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 115
Table 35: Sales Trends for Major Players*, Cardiovascular Devices, Germany, 2011 116
Table 36: In Vitro Diagnostics Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 118
Table 37: Sales Trends for Major Players*, In Vitro Diagnostics Devices, Germany, 2011 119
Table 38: Orthopedic Devices Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 121
Table 39: Sales Trends for Major Players*, Orthopedic Devices, Germany, 2011 121
Table 40: Hospital Supplies Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 122
Table 41: Sales Trends for Major Players*, Hospital Devices, Germany, 2011 123
Table 42: Wound Care Management Devices Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 124
Table 43: Sales Trends for Major Players*, Wound Care Management Devices, Germany, 2011 125
Table 44: Diagnostics Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 126
Table 45: Diagnostic Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), Forecast, 2013–2020 127
Table 46: Major Medical Device Companies, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2011 128
Table 47: Major Products, Medtronic, Global, Revenue ($m), 2012 130
Table 48: Major Products, Siemens, Global, Revenue ($m), 2012 137
Table 49: Major Products, Roche, Revenues ($m), 2012 143
Table 50: Major Products Class, Abbott, Global, Revenue ($m), 2012 149
Table 51: Late-stage Pipeline, Abbott, 2011 150
Table 52: Major Product Division, B. Braun, Global, Revenue ($m), 2011 156
Table 53: Reimbursement Rates by Age, Germany, 2013 171
Table 54: Number of SHI Funds, Germany, 1970–2013 172
Table 55: Healthcare Spending, Germany, Patient Share (%), 2007–2012 175
Table 56: Reimbursement Rates of Pharmaceuticals, Germany, 2013 177
Table 57: Change in Average Price of Prescription Drugs (%), Germany, 2006–2011 178
Table 58: Health Price Index, Germany, 2007–2012 179
Table 59: GDP per Capita ($), Germany, 2007–2012 224
Table 60: GDP per Capita ($), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 225
Table 61: GDP, Germany, Annual Growth (%), 2007–2012 226
Table 62: GDP, Germany, Annual Growth (%), Forecast, 2013–2020 227
Table 63: GNI per Capita ($), Germany, 2007–2012 228
Table 64: Average Consumer Price Index, Germany, 2007–2012 229
Table 65: Average Consumer Price Index, Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 230
Table 66: Average Consumer Price, Germany, Annual Change (%), 2007–2012 231
Table 67: Currency Exchange Rate (€/$), Germany, 2007–2012 232
Table 68: Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 234
Table 69: Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 235
Table 70: Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 236
Table 71: Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 237
Table 72: General Government Structural Balance ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 238
Table 73: General Government Net Debt ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 239
Table 74: General Government Net Debt ($bn), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 240
Table 75: Major Industries, Gross Value Added ($bn), Germany, 2012 242
Table 76: Population (million), Germany, 2007–2012 244
Table 77: Population (million), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 244
Table 78: Urban and Rural Population, Germany, Share (%), 2007–2012 245
Table 79: Age Groups, Germany, Population Distribution (%), 2007–2012 247
Table 80: Births (per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 248
Table 81: Births (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 249
Table 82: Mortality (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 250
Table 83: Mortality (per 1,000 Population), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 251
Table 84: Major Causes of Mortality (‘000), Germany, 2011 253
Table 85: Children <5 Years Age, Mortality (Per 1,000 Live Births), Germany, 2007–2012 254
Table 86: Major Causes of Male Mortality (‘000), Germany, 2011 255
Table 87: Major Causes of Female Mortality (‘000), Germany, 2011 256
Table 88: Gender Ratio (M/F), Germany, 2007–2012 257
Table 89: Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), Germany, 2006–2011 258
Table 90: Highest Level of General Education Completed, Germany, Student Share (%), 2011 260
Table 91: Vocational Qualification, Germany, Students Share (%), 2011 261
Table 92: Institutions for Higher Education, Germany, 2011 262
Table 93: Unemployment Rate (%), Germany, 2007–2012 263
Table 94: Most Frequently Diagnosed Diseases (‘000), Germany, 2011 265
Table 95: Major Diseases, Germany, DALY (per 100,000 Population), 2004 267
Table 96: Hospitals, Germany, 2007–2012 269
Table 97: Acute Care Hospitals (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 270
Table 98: Hospitals, Germany, Share (%), 2011 271
Table 99: Hospital Beds (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 272
Table 100: Acute Care Hospital Beds (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 273
Table 101: Psychiatric Care Hospital Beds, (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 274
Table 102: Rehabilitation Care Hospital Beds (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 275
Table 103: Full Time Healthcare Personnel (000’s), Germany, 2007–2012 276
Table 104: Physicians (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 277
Table 105: General Practitioners (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 278
Table 106: Dentists (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 279
Table 107: Pharmacists (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 280
Table 108: Nurses (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 281
Table 109: PM10 Emissions, Germany (Micrograms Per Cubic Meter), 2005–2010 283
Table 110: CO2, Germany, Emissions (Million Tons), 2005–2010 284
Table 111: Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), Germany, 2007–2012 287
Table 112: Healthcare Expenditure, Germany, Share of Major Components (%), 2010 289
Table 113: Healthcare Expenditure, Germany, Public–Private Share (%), 2005–2010 290
Table 114: Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure ($bn), Germany, 2005–2010 291
Table 115: Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, Germany, 2011–2012

1.2 List of Figures
Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 20
Figure 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), Forecast, 2013–2020 21
Figure 3: Pharmaceutical Import, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 22
Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Export, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 23
Figure 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Supply Channel, Germany, 2010 25
Figure 6: SHI Expenditure for Pharmaceutical Products , Germany, Share (%), 2011 28
Figure 7: Generic Pharmaceutical Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 30
Figure 8: Biological Drugs in Pipeline, Germany, 2008–2011 32
Figure 9: Over-the-Counter Drugs Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 34
Figure 10: Major Segments, OTC Pharmaceutical, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2011 35
Figure 11: Major Disease Area, Germany, Total Cost of llness ($bn), 2008 36
Figure 12: Major Disease Area, Germany, Cost of Illness ($bn), Sales from Retailers and Other Providers of Medical Goods, 2008 37
Figure 13: Medical Device Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2007–2012 111
Figure 14: Medical Device Market, Germany, Revenue ($bn), Forecast, 2013–2020 112
Figure 15: Major Medical Device Segments, Germany, Revenue ($bn), 2012 113
Figure 16: Cardiovascular Devices Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 115
Figure 17: Sales Trends for Major Players*, Cardiovascular Devices, Germany, 2007–2011 116
Figure 18: In Vitro Diagnostics Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 118
Figure 19: Sales Trends for Major Players*, In Vitro Diagnostics Devices, Germany, 2007–2011 119
Figure 20: Orthopedic Devices Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 120
Figure 21: Sales Trends for Major Players*, Orthopedic Devices, Germany, 2007–2011 121
Figure 22: Hospital Supplies Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 122
Figure 23: Sales Trends for Major Players*, Hospital Devices, Germany, 2007–2011 123
Figure 24: Wound Care Management Devices Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 124
Figure 25: Sales Trends for Major Players*, Wound Care Management Devices, Germany, 2007–2011 125
Figure 26: Diagnostics Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2007–2012 126
Figure 27: Diagnostic Market, Germany, Revenue ($m), Forecast, 2013–2020 127
Figure 28: Major Medical Device Companies, Germany, Revenue ($m), 2011 128
Figure 29: Drivers and Barriers, Healthcare Market, Germany, 2013 165
Figure 30: Roles of Regulatory Bodies, Germany, 2013 169
Figure 31: Reimbursement Process, Germany, 2013 170
Figure 32: SHI Funds, Germany, 1970–2013 172
Figure 33: Healthcare Spending, Germany, Patient Share (%), 2007–2012 175
Figure 34: Change in Average Price of Prescription Drugs (%), Germany, 2006–2011 178
Figure 35: Health Price Index, Germany, 2007–2012 179
Figure 36: Reference Pricing System, Germany, 2011 182
Figure 37: National Procedure for Market Authorization, Germany, 2013 185
Figure 38: Centralized Procedure, Pre- submission, EU, 2013 187
Figure 39: Centralized Procedure, Market Authorization, Pre-opinion Phase, EU, 2013 189
Figure 40: Centralized Procedure, Market Authorization, Post-opinion Phase, EU, 2013 191
Figure 41: Decentralized Procedure, EU, 2011 193
Figure 42: Mutual Recognition Procedure, EU, 2013 195
Figure 43: Conformity Assessment of Class I Medical Devices, EU, 2013 197
Figure 44: Conformity Assessment of Class IIa Medical Devices, EU, 2013 199
Figure 45: Conformity Assessment of Class IIb Medical Devices, EU, 2011 200
Figure 46: Conformity Assessment of Class III Medical Devices, EU, 2013 201
Figure 47: Patent Approval Process, Germany, 2013 205
Figure 48: Clinical Trial Regulation Process, Germany, 2011 208
Figure 49: GDP per Capita ($), Germany, 2007–2012 224
Figure 50: GDP per Capita ($), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 225
Figure 51: GDP, Germany, Annual Growth (%), 2007–2012 226
Figure 52: GDP, Germany, Annual Growth (%), Forecast, 2013–2020 227
Figure 53: GNI per Capita ($), Germany, 2007–2012 228
Figure 54: Average Consumer Price Index, Germany, 2007–2012 229
Figure 55: Average Consumer Price Index, Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 230
Figure 56: Average Consumer Price, Germany, Annual Change (%), 2007–2012 231
Figure 57: Currency Exchange Rate (€/$), Germany, 2007–2012 232
Figure 58: Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 234
Figure 59: Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 235
Figure 60: Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 236
Figure 61: Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 237
Figure 62: General Government Structural Balance ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 238
Figure 63: General Government Net Debt ($bn), Germany, 2007–2012 239
Figure 64: General Government Net Debt ($bn), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 240
Figure 65: Major Industries, Gross Value Added ($bn), Germany, 2012 241
Figure 66: Population (million), Germany, 2007–2012 243
Figure 67: Population (million), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 244
Figure 68: Urban and Rural Population, Germany, Share (%), 2007–2012 245
Figure 69: Age Groups, Germany, Population Distribution (%), 2007–2012 246
Figure 70: Births (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 248
Figure 71: Births (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 249
Figure 72: Mortality (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 250
Figure 73: Mortality (per 1,000 Population), Germany, Forecast, 2013–2020 251
Figure 74: Major Causes of Mortality (‘000), Germany, 2011 252
Figure 75: Children <5 Years Age, Mortality (Per 1,000 Live Births), Germany, 2007–2012 254
Figure 76: Major Causes of Male Mortality (‘000), Germany, 2011 255
Figure 77: Major Causes of Female Mortality (‘000), Germany, 2011 256
Figure 78: Gender Ratio (M/F), Germany, 2007–2012 257
Figure 79: Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), Germany, 2006–2011 258
Figure 80: Highest Level of General Education Completed, Germany, Student Share (%), 2011 259
Figure 81: Vocational Qualification, Germany, Students Share (%), 2011 261
Figure 82: Institutions for Higher Education, Germany, 2011 262
Figure 83: Unemployment Rate (%), Germany, 2007–2012 263
Figure 84: Most Frequently Diagnosed Diseases (‘000), Germany, 2011 264
Figure 85: Major Diseases, Germany, DALY (Per 100,000 Population), 2004 266
Figure 86: Hospitals, Germany, 2007–2012 269
Figure 87: Acute Care Hospitals (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 270
Figure 88: Hospitals, Germany, Share (%), 2011 271
Figure 89: Hospital Beds (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 272
Figure 90: Acute Care Hospital Beds (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 273
Figure 91: Psychiatric Care Hospital Beds, (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 274
Figure 92: Rehabilitation Care Hospital Beds (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 275
Figure 93: Full Time Healthcare Personnel (000’s), Germany, 2007–2012 276
Figure 94: Physicians (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 277
Figure 95: General Practitioners (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 278
Figure 96: Dentists (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 279
Figure 97: Pharmacists (Per 1,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 280
Figure 98: Nurses (Per 100,000 Population), Germany, 2007–2012 281
Figure 99: PM10 Emissions, Germany (Micrograms Per Cubic Meter), 2005–2010 283
Figure 100: CO2, Germany, Emissions (Million Tons), 2005–2010 284
Figure 101: Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), Germany, 2007–2012 287
Figure 102: Healthcare Expenditure, Germany, Share of Major Components (%), 2010 288
Figure 103: Healthcare Expenditure, Germany, Public–Private Share (%), 2005–2010 290
Figure 104: Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure ($bn), Germany, 2005–2010 291
Figure 105: Opportunities and Challenges, Healthcare Market, Germany, 2013 298

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